An investigation into the violence and civil disturbance since 5 October 1968.

On 15 January 1969, the Government of Northern Ireland announced the establishment of a commission:
“to hold an enquiry into and to report upon the course of events leading to, and the immediate causes and nature of the violence and civil disturbance in Northern Ireland on and since 5 October 1968; and to assess the composition, conduct and aims of those bodies involved in the current agitation and in any incidents arising out of it.”

This became known as the Cameron Commission and consisted of Lord Cameron, Sir John Biggart, and James Campbell. By the time the report was published in September 1969, much had changed in Northern Ireland. Key events include the following: a Stormont election resulted in a split in the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP). The Ulster Unionist Parliamentary Party voted for "one man, one vote". Terence O'Neill resigned as Prime Minister. Unity candidate Bernadette Devlin became the youngest woman ever to be elected to Westminster. A loyalist bombing campaign targeted electricity and water plants. Increased sectarian strife across Northern Ireland resulted in the "Battle of the Bogside", the deaths of six people in a Belfast riot and the deployment of British troops in Northern Ireland.