The Taoiseach has said that Ireland will not be able to borrow cheaply forever and there is no such thing as free money.
Leo Varadkar told the Dáil that the country's increasing debt would have to be serviced and refinanced.
The mistake should not be made, he said, of thinking that Ireland could borrow cheaply in six months' time and it would be naive to think that conditions would not change.
If this happened, Mr Varadkar added, those with the largest deficits would be the first to feel the ill wind.
There were many downsides to prolonged low interest rates and increased money supply, he said.
This would lead to inflation and devalue spending power, he said, but there were no risk-free or perfect solutions.
Mr Varadkar said the cost of providing public services and infrastructure will rise and it might cost more to do less.
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Some parts of the economy will never look the same again, he added.
The Taoiseach said the recovery would not be easy and the export-led recovery of ten years ago was unlikely, adding that Brexit would further complicate matters.
He said there would be a substantial deficit this year and the money borrowed would be used to provide income support, retraining and to stimulate economic activity.
Decision on Phase Two of road map on 5 June
Mr Varadkar also said that a Cabinet decision would be made on Phase Two of the road map on Friday 5 June - three days before Ireland is due to move to the next stage.
He said that some countries were opening faster but the Government stood over the slow and steady approach.
If it goes well, it can be accelerated but that call cannot be made now, he added.
The Taoiseach also said that work had begun on preparedness for a second wave of Covid-19 in September and October.
He said hundreds of lives could be saved this winter and every winter by greater uptake of the flu vaccine.
The Department of Health is examining ways to retain extra critical care capacity and extra beds, he added.
Mr Varadkar said the Government may decide to have an advisory body different to the National Public Health Emergency Team made up of multi-disciplinary advisers.
However, he said there will still be lobbying and political pressure from different sources and decisions will still be contested.
The Taoiseach said that decisions are currently being made by Government on foot of advice from NPHET.
He said there has been ongoing consultation with the Irish Congress of Trade Unions, the Construction Industry Federation and employers' group Ibec.
He said that was where the protocol came from to allow businesses to reopen.
The Fianna Fáil leader criticised the decision not to allow homeware stores to reopen while hardware stores can.
Micheál Martin described the distinction as "foolish".
He told the Dáil that some decisions needed "refinement" and highlighted, as an example, where a golf club was reopened but a member could not drive 6km to get there.
Mr Martin said the division between what shops could open and those that must remain closed "simply makes no sense and in some cases is damaging the credibility of the overall restrictions".
He called for a robust debate about the unwinding of the restrictions and multidisciplinary input in terms of the opening of society and the economy.
Deputy Martin added that the impact of clusters of Covid-19 remained a "huge concern".
He said there was no doubt that when lessons are being learned from the coronavirus crisis, the situation in nursing homes and meat plants would be a focus.
He added that he hoped to hear detail about what measures would be taken to act on clusters much earlier.
Mr Martin said the economic impact of the crisis had been unprecedented and efforts must be made to ensure that businesses and jobs are not permanently lost.
The Sinn Féin President said it was incredible that workable childcare had not been "hardwired" into the reopening plan.
Mary Lou McDonald said it was essential for the success of the road map and a "no-brainer" to ensure people could return to work.
She said she was alarmed to hear that Minister for Children Katherine Zappone was considering the Norwegian model of childcare with pods.
Ms McDonald said it would take a miracle to enforce that level of social distancing and there would be a huge issue with capacity.
The Taoiseach said the minister was consulting with the sector and examining other jurisdictions.
Ms McDonald also raised the issue of some women returning from maternity leave who have been "locked out" of the Temporary Wage Subsidy Scheme.
She said that new legislation was not required and the Revenue Commissioners could deal with the problem on an administrative basis.
She called on Mr Varadkar to instruct Minister for Finance Paschal Donohoe to instruct the Revenue Commissioners to resolve the issue.
Mr Varadkar said that identifying the problem was much easier than identifying a solution and he said there were related issues with parental leave, paternity leave and leaves of absence.
He said the minister and Revenue were already working on the problem.
Labour leader Alan Kelly criticised advice that Dáil members can only be in the chamber for just two hours at a time.
He said the guidance was "bonkers" and that he broke the conditions last week when he was in the chamber for "well over two hours".
Mr Kelly said the advice was leading to a "two-tier" society where one set of rules applied to the Dáil and the courts and different rules applied elsewhere.
The Labour leader also called for "cast-iron" guarantee that childcare will reopen at the end of June.
Mr Kelly said that lives would be lost while cancer screening was suspended and that women were being treated differently in this crisis.
Social Democrats co-leader Róisín Shortall said the two-hour Dáil rule had the potential to cause chaos because the implications were so severe.
She said it was unworkable for the House and other settings and she called on the Taoiseach to make a clear and categorical statement of the status of that advice.
Ms Shortall also pressed for more detail on how decisions would be made on lifting restrictions.
She said it was much more complex to reopen than to shut down sectors.
She said a multidisciplinary task force was needed to advise on the plan and the Cabinet subcommittee did not have the skills.
Solidarity TD Mick Barry also raised the issue of clusters of Covid-19 in meat plants and called on the Taoiseach to shut down plants when a positive case was detected.
Leo Varadkar said that would not be practicable and was not done in other sectors.
Additional reporting Aisling Kenny & David Murphy