The United Nations has implored the world to not forget the plight of Afghanistan's women and children despite other international crises, one year after the Taliban's return to power.

The war-ravaged nation is suffering profound hardship including a staggering 95% of its population undernourished, United Nations Population Fund executive director Natalia Kanem warned in a statement on the anniversary of the hardline Islamists capturing Kabul.

"As the world faces multiple, overlapping crises, we must not forget the women and girls of Afghanistan. When women's and girls' basic rights are denied, we are all diminished," Ms Kanem said, denouncing the "continuous erosion" of females' access to education and health care.

"One year since the Taliban took power in Afghanistan, the country remains in the throes of a deep economic and humanitarian crisis," she warned.

"Soaring food and fuel prices - exacerbated by a drought and the war in Ukraine - have resulted in an estimated 95% of the population, and nearly all female-headed households, not having enough to eat."

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In a separate statement at the weekend, UN Under-Secretary-General Sima Bahous, who also heads the gender equality agency UN Women, denounced the "meticulously constructed policies of inequality" set up by the Taliban.

"We must continue to elevate the voices of Afghan women and girls who are fighting every day for their right to live free and equal lives," she said.

"Their fight is our fight. What happens to women and girls in Afghanistan is our global responsibility."

Taliban fighters celebrated the anniversary of their return to power - and the departure of US troops after two decades of intervention - by chanting victory slogans in Kabul.

Some people fired celebratory gunshots in the air in Kabul and Taliban fighters gathered, waving the group's black and white flag to mark a year since they marched into the capital after a stunning series of battlefield victories.

"This day is the day of the victory of truth over falsehood and the day of salvation and freedom of the Afghan nation," said Taliban spokesperson Zabihullah Mujahid in a statement.

Female students read during class at a secret school in Kabul

While the country is safer than it was when the hardline Islamist movement was fighting against US-led foreign forces and their Afghan allies, a local offshoot of Islamic State has carried out several attacks.

Yet that relative security cannot mask the scale of the challenge the Taliban faces in setting Afghanistan on a path of economic growth and stability.

There are huge pressures on the economy, caused in large part by the country's isolation as foreign governments refuse to recognise its rulers.

Development aid upon which the country relied so heavily has been cut as the international community demands that the Taliban respect the rights of Afghans, particularly women and girls whose access to work and education has been curtailed.

The Taliban is demanding that $9bn in central bank reserves held overseas be returned, but talks with the United States face hurdles, including US demands that a Taliban leader subject to sanctions step down from his position as second in command at the bank.

The Taliban refuses to cede to these demands, saying that they respect all Afghans' rights within the framework of their interpretation of Islamic law.

And until there is a major shift in either side's position, there is no immediate fix in sight for spiralling prices, rising joblessness and hunger that will get worse as winter sets in.

"We are all heading to darkness and misfortune," said Amena Arezo, a doctor from southeastern Ghazni province.

"People have no future, especially women."

Over half in poverty

Roughly 25 million Afghans are now living in poverty - well over half the population and the United Nations estimates that up to 900,000 jobs could be lost this year as the economy stalls.

Fatima, who lives in Herat province in the west of the country, said she had noticed improved security during the past year, but noted with dismay that schools for girls had closed and there was a lack of job opportunities for women.

Like many Afghans, she asked that only her first name be used for fear of reprisal.

Jawed, from southern Helmand province, which saw heavy fighting in the past, said security had improved dramatically since the Taliban returned to power 20 years after they were ousted by US-backed forces, but also noted rampant inflation.

The last time the Taliban ruled Afghanistan in the late 1990s, women could not work, girls were banned from school and strict Islamic law was brutally enforced, including through public executions.

Taliban fighters stand guard after a gathering at the former presidential palace in Kabul

Civil society and independent media have also shrunk, with many of its members leaving the country.

The UN's mission to Afghanistan said in a recent review that the group was limiting dissent by arresting journalists, activists and protesters.

A Taliban spokesman had rejected the UN's report and said arbitrary arrests were not allowed.

The country's administration continues to be considered a caretaker government or 'de facto' authority with acting ministers, whose decisions can be overturned by the group's supreme spiritual leader, based in the southern city of Kandahar.

Some constitutional and legal experts say that it is not always clear how the legal and moral Islamic code of Sharia will be interpreted and applied in practice.

"The most obvious problem is there is no uniformity of law," said Zalmai Nishat, an Afghan constitutional expert who previously worked as a government adviser.

"Now it's at the whims of the (Taliban) leader in Kandahar and also at the whims of those who are leading on his behalf...that's the problem, it's the unpredictability."

Meanwhile, UNICEF has said that now is an important juncture for the children of Afghanistan.

Speaking from the country, UNICEF's Veronica Houser said that the organisation was very concerned that if Afghan children do not continue to receive support, they could lose gains made in the last 20 years.

Ms Houser told RTÉ's Drivetime programme that 90% of Afghanistan are on the brink of poverty, as families who do not have enough food and over three million children at risk of malnutrition.

She said that UNICEF refuses to give up and that hope is embedded in Afghanistan and the DNA of the organisation.