A sharp upturn in infections due to the Delta variant and a slowdown in vaccinations have pushed governments to make Covid shots mandatory for health workers, other high-risk groups or dining out.

A growing number of countries are also making shots compulsory for public servants or travellers. In some of the strictest measures in the world, Italy will require a Covid health pass from all workers.

Here are some countries' vaccine mandates:


The Italian government made it obligatory for all workers either to show proof of vaccination, a negative test or recent recovery from infection. The new rules will come into force on 15 October.

Any worker who fails to present a valid health certificate will be suspended without pay, but cannot be sacked, according to a draft of the decree seen by Reuters.

While some European Union states have ordered their health workers to get vaccines, none have made the Green Pass mandatory for all employees, making Italy a test case for the continent.

United States

Nurses administer Covid-19 shots at a vaccination clinic at Winter Springs High School, Florida

President Joe Biden on 10 September announced policies requiring most federal employees to get Covid-19 vaccinations and pushing large employers to have their workers jabbed or tested weekly.

The new measures would apply to about two-thirds of all US employees, those who work for businesses with more than 100 workers.

The White House confirmed on 5 August it is considering requiring foreign visitors to be vaccinated as it plans to eventually reopen international travel but said it had made no final decision and was not immediately going to lift restrictions.


Workers at a vaccination clinic at a Pharmacy in Narromine, Australia

Australia decided in late June to make vaccinations mandatory for high-risk aged-care workers and employees in quarantine hotels.

In Tasmania, vaccines will be mandatory for aged care workers as of 17 September, the Examiner reported on 14 August.


A pedestrian walks past a sign on the southbank in central London

It will be mandatory for care home workers in England to have vaccinations from October.

"I believe that it is highly likely that front line NHS staff and those working in wider social care settings will also have to be vaccinated to protect those that are around them," Health Secretary Sajid Javid said this week.


Healthcare workers from Humber River Hospital and members of Muslim community in Toronto

Canada said on 13 August it would mandate Covid vaccination for federal public servants and transportation workers by the end of October. The vaccine mandate will also include air, train and cruise ship travellers.

From 13 September, vaccines are required for patrons of non-essential businesses such as restaurants and movie theatres.


People wait for their first dose of the AstraZeneca Covid-19 vaccine in Suva

A "no jab, no job" coronavirus policy went into effect in Fiji on 15 August, with unvaccinated public servants forced to go on leave. Those who remain unvaccinated by November will be dismissed.

In addition, employees at private firms could face fines and companies could be forced to stop operations over vaccine refusals.


A woman holds a sign reading 'Blackmail does not pass' during a protest against the compulsory Covid-19 vaccination in France

Thousands of health workers across France have been suspended without pay for failing to get vaccinated against Covid-19 ahead of a deadline this week.

France's national public health agency estimated last week that roughly 12% of hospital staff and around 6%of doctors in private practices have yet to be vaccinated.


Clashes between riot police and anti-vaccine protesters during a rally in Thessaloniki

Greece on 12 July made vaccinations mandatory for nursing home staff with immediate effect and healthcare workers from September.

As part of new measures, only vaccinated customers are allowed in bars, cinemas, theatres and other closed spaces.


Hungary's government has decided to make vaccinations mandatory for healthcare workers.


The world's fourth most populous country made inoculations mandatory in February, threatening fines of up to 5 million rupiah ($357).


People to receive dose of coronavirus Sputnik V vaccine in Nur Sultan, Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan will introduce mandatory vaccinations or weekly testing for people working in groups of more than 20.


Health workers take the details of residents at the Rafik Hariri University Hospital in Beirut

Lebanon is to limit entry to restaurants, cafes, pubs and beaches to people holding vaccine certificates or those who have taken antibody tests.

Non-vaccinated employees of these establishments would be required to receive a PCR test every 72 hours.


Malta banned visitors from entering the country from 14 July unless they were fully vaccinated.


The Federated States of Micronesia

The small South Pacific island nation of the Federated States of Micronesia has mandated that its adult population be inoculated against Covid-19.

The Pacific island nation said on 29 July everyone over 18 years will have to receive a vaccine.


Travellers arrive into Amsterdam's Schipol Airport

The Dutch government announced on 14 September it will introduce a "corona" pass showing proof of vaccination to go to bars, restaurants, clubs or cultural events.


A man approaches a mobile vaccination unit in St Petersburg

Moscow city authorities on 16 June ordered all workers with public-facing roles to be vaccinated against Covid. Companies were given a month to ensure at least 60% of staff had received first doses, or face fines or temporary closure.

But Moscow residents no longer have to present a QR code demonstrating they have been vaccinated or have immunity in order to sit in cafes, restaurants and bars.

Saudi Arabia

Pilgrims arrive at King Abdulaziz International Airport in the Red Sea coastal city of Jeddah

In May, Saudi Arabia mandated that all public and private sector workers wishing to attend a workplace get vaccinated, without specifying when this would be implemented.

Vaccination has been required to enter any government, private, or education establishments and to use public transport from 1 August.

Sri Lanka

Covid checks in an airport in Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka announced on 13 August that citizens would require vaccination cards to travel between provinces and in public spaces from 15 September.


Socially-distanced outdoor dining in Switzerland

Swiss people need to show a Covid-status certificate to enter bars, restaurants and fitness centres in Switzerland, the government ordered.

The Swiss Covid certificate provides proof of vaccination, recovery from infection or a negative test result.


A protester holds a placard that says WHO, get out of Turkey during the demonstration.

Turkey will begin requiring negative Covid-19 test results and proofs of vaccination for some sectors, including from teachers as schools reopen in September and for domestic travel, President Tayyip Erdogan said on 19 August.

As of 6 September, a negative PCR test is mandatory for those who have not been vaccinated, or not recovered from the virus, to enter concerts, cinemas and theatres.


Turkmen women wearing face masks walk in Ashgabat

Turkmenistan is making vaccination mandatory for all residents aged 18 and over.