A German court has sentenced a former member of President Bashar al-Assad's security services to four-and-a-half years in prison for facilitating the torture of civilians.
It is the first such verdict for crimes against humanity in the ten-year Syrian civil war.
The higher regional court in the western city of Koblenz said Eyad A had arrested at least 30 anti-government protesters at the start of the conflict in 2011.
It said he sent them to an intelligence facility where he knew detainees were tortured.
The verdict gives hope to the Syrians in Germany who say they were tortured in government facilities after attempts to establish an international tribunal for Syria failed.
"This is an important step forward in the process of securing accountability for the Syrian government's systematic use of torture against civilians," said Steve Kostas, a lawyer with the Open Society Foundation's Justice Initiative, which is representing Syrian plaintiffs.
The Assad government denies it tortures prisoners.
Eyad A's lawyers had asked for an acquittal, saying he had carried out the arrests in and around Damascus under duress by his superiors.
He had asked the court to consider him a witness in broader legal efforts against the Syrian government.
The same court will continue hearings in the case of a second suspect identified as Anwar R.
The former intelligence officer is charged with 58 murders in a Damascus prison where prosecutors say at least 4,000 opposition activists were tortured in 2011 and 2012.
Syrian human rights lawyer Anwar al-Bunni said the unprecedented verdict would speed up efforts to bring charges against former members of the Syrian government suspected of war crimes who have fled to Europe.
"History has been made," said Mr al-Bunni.
"The first verdict against a member of the Syrian regime's torture and murder machine is a verdict against the whole regime, not just against one individual.
"It gives hope that justice is possible."