Russian President Vladimir Putin told the Defence Ministry and other government agencies to analyse the threat posed by a new US missile test and to prepare a reciprocal response.
The Pentagon said on Monday it had tested a conventionally-configured cruise missile that hit its target after more than 500km of flight, the first such test since the United States pulled out of a major arms control treaty with Russia on 2 August.
Mr Putin said Russia could not stand idly by, and that US talk of deploying new missiles in the Asia-Pacific region "affects our core interests as it is close to Russia's borders", according to a transcript of his remarks on the Kremlin website.
"As you know, we have never wanted, do not want and will not get involved in a costly, destructive arms race," Mr Putin said.
The United States formally withdrew from the Cold War-era Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF) with Russia after accusing Moscow of violating it, a charge dismissed by the Kremlin.
The test would have been banned under the INF, which prohibited land-based missiles with a range of between 500km and 5,470km, reducing the ability of both countries to launch a nuclear strike at short notice.
The Pentagon said the test took place on Sunday at San Nicolas Island off California.