Iceland has honoured the passing of Okjokull, its first glacier lost to climate change, as scientists warn that some 400 others on the subarctic island risk the same fate.
A bronze plaque was unveiled in a ceremony to mark Okjokull - which translates to "Ok glacier" - in the west of Iceland, in the presence of local researchers and their peers at Rice University in the United States, who initiated the project.
Iceland's Prime Minister Katrin Jakobsdottir, Environment Minister Gudmundur Ingi Gudbrandsson, and former President and United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson also attended the event.
"This will be the first monument to a glacier lost to climate change anywhere in the world," Cymene Howe, associate professor of anthropology at Rice University, said in July.
The plaque bears the inscription "A letter to the future," and is intended to raise awareness about the decline of glaciers and the effects of climate change.
"In the next 200 years all our glaciers are expected to follow the same path. This monument is to acknowledge that we know what is happening and what needs to be done. Only you know if we did it," the plaque reads.
It is also labelled "415 ppm CO2," referring to the record level of carbon dioxide measured in the atmosphere last May.
"Memorials everywhere stand for either human accomplishments, like the deeds of historic figures, or the losses and deaths we recognise as important," Ms Howe said.
"By memorialising a fallen glacier, we want to emphasise what is being lost - or dying - the world over, and also draw attention to the fact that this is something that humans have 'accomplished', although it is not something we should be proud of."
Ms Howe noted that the conversation about climate change can be abstract, with many dire statistics and sophisticated scientific models that can feel incomprehensible.
"Perhaps a monument to a lost glacier is a better way to fully grasp what we now face," she said, highlighting "the power of symbols and ceremony to provoke feelings".
Iceland loses about 11 billion tonnes of ice per year, and scientists fear all of the island country's 400-plus glaciers will be gone by 2200, according to Ms Howe and her Rice University colleague Dominic Boyer.