The United States has warned Russia that it would withdraw from the Cold War-era nuclear arms treaty if Moscow does not return to compliance within 60 days.
"The United States today declares Russia in material breach of the treaty and we will suspend our obligations as a remedy in 60 days unless Russia returns to full and verifiable compliance," Secretary of State Mike Pompeo declared.
The treaty was signed in 1987 and limits mid-range nuclear arms.
Following a ministerial meeting today, NATO said it was "up to Russia" to save the treaty.
The US has accused Moscow of breaching the agreement.
"We call on Russia to return urgently to full and verifiable compliance. It is now up to Russia to preserve the INF treaty," foreign ministers from the 29-member alliance said in a joint statement after talks in Brussels.
Western powers say a Russian missile system developed and fielded over the last five years breaches the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty.
In October, President Donald Trump declared the United States would pull out of the treaty and build up America's nuclear stockpile "until people come to their senses."
But yesterday, the US leader said he wants talks with his Chinese and Russian counterparts Xi Jinping and Vladimir Putin "to head off a major and uncontrollable Arms Race."
Trump's chief diplomat Secretary of State Mike Pompeo was at NATO headquarters for the meeting today and won support for a tough stance from the allies.
"The United States has remained in full compliance with its obligations under the INF Treaty since it entered into force," the ministers said in their joint statement.
"Allies have emphasised that the situation whereby the United States and other parties fully abide by the Treaty and Russia does not, is not sustainable," they warned.
"Russia's violation of the INF Treaty erodes the foundations of effective arms control and undermines Allied security.
This is part of Russia's broader pattern of behaviour that is intended to weaken the overall Euro-Atlantic security architecture."