Team Sky and Tour de France winner Bradley Wiggins has been accused of crossing an ethical line in a damning report from the House of Commons Digital, Culture, Media and Sport select committee.
It said they had done so by using drugs permitted for medical need to instead enhance performance.
The Committee has also accused Sky and British Cycling of "serious, unprofessional and inexcusable" behaviour in failing to keep proper medical records.
Team Sky rejected any suggestion that medication had been used to enhance performance.
Bradley Wiggins said in a statement that he was sad such accusations could be made and denied he had used drugs without there being a medical need, adding that he hoped to have his say in the coming days.
Report calls for suppliers to be criminalised
The committee has recommended that those who administer or supply doping products to athletes should be pursued by the law as criminals.
Having spent two and a half years investigating allegations of doping in athletics and cycling, the DCMS committee published a highly critical report today.
It accused Team Sky principal Dave Brailsford and British cycling star Bradley Wiggins of "crossing an ethical line" by using powerful medicine to boost performance, and world athletics boss Sebastian Coe of misleading parliament in his answers on what he knew about his sport's problems.
But the report also made a series of suggestions to improve sport's fight against drugs cheats.
The committee had considered calling for doping, as a whole, to be criminalised, as has happened in countries such as France and Italy.
But the report said: "We do not think it would be effective to subject doping athletes to criminal procedures and penalties.
"Longer bans on competing are likely to be more of a disincentive to them, and will avoid placing an extra burden on law enforcement bodies such as the police and courts."
As well as going after the enablers and suppliers, the committee advocates increasing the maximum ban for first-time offenders from four years to five so they would miss two Olympic or Paralympic Games.
It also believes UK Anti-Doping and the other anti-doping authorities are hugely under-resourced.
In response to the report, British Prime Minister Theresa May's official spokesman said: "Broadly, we are clear that there is no place for doping in sport. The public should have trust in their sportspeople and have confidence that they are watching them compete on a level playing field.
"On the specifics of the report, it was an independent inquiry by the DCMS select committee and the Government will respond to it in the usual way.
"It's obviously worth noting that Team Sky has refuted the allegations."
Asked whether there was a case for considering whether Wiggins should keep his knighthood, the spokesman said: "That's not something we ever comment on."
Additional reporting: PA