Russia has rained down missiles across Ukraine, forcing shutdowns of nuclear power plants and killing civilians, as Moscow pursues a campaign to plunge Ukrainian cities into darkness and cold as winter sets in.

Russia fired "around 70 cruise missiles" at targets across Ukraine today, causing electricity and water supply disruptions nationwide, the Ukrainian army said.

"In total, around 70 cruise missiles... were launched," the Ukrainian army said on social media, adding that 51 of them were shot down by air defences.

Meanwhile, officials across the border in Moldova said electricity was also lost to more than half of their country, the first time a neighbouring state has reported such extensive damage from the war in Ukraine triggered by Russia's invasion nine months ago.

A blackout forced the shutdown of reactors at the Pivdennoukrainsk nuclear power plant in the south and the Rivne and Khmelnitskyi plants in the west, all in government-held territory, the state-run nuclear energy firm Energoatom said.

"Currently, they (power units) work in project mode, without generation into the domestic energy system," Energoatom said.

Ukraine's largest nuclear complex, at Zaporizhzhia near the front lines in the south, is Russian-controlled and was previously switched off because of shelling that both sides blame on each other.

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Air raid sirens blared across Ukraine in a nationwide alert.

Explosions could be heard on the outskirts of the capital Kyiv this afternoon and at least three people were killed including a 17-year-old girl, with at least 11 wounded, Mayor Vitali Klitschko said.

A power blackout ensured around the capital.

Earlier, Russian missiles hit a maternity hospital in the southern Zaporizhzhia region overnight, killing a baby, the regional governor said on the Telegram messaging service.

Blasts were also reported in other cities, where further information about casualties was not immediately available.

A view of dark streets as Kyiv faces power outages

Since October, Russia has openly acknowledged targeting Ukraine's civil power and heating systems with long-range missiles and drones.

Russia said the aim was to reduce Kyiv's ability to fight and push it to negotiate. Ukraine has said the strikes on infrastructure are a war crime, deliberately intended to harm civilians to break the national will.

Moldova, like Ukraine a former Soviet republic once dominated by Moscow but now pro-Western, has long worried about the prospect of fighting spreading across its borders.

"Massive blackout in Moldova after today's Russian attack on Ukraine's energy infrastructure," Deputy Prime Minister Andrei Spuni said on Twitter, adding the grid operator was trying to reconnect "more than 50% of the country to electricity".

With the first snow of Ukraine's generally frigid winter falling, authorities worry about the impact of power cuts affecting millions of people.

In an overnight video address, President Volodymyr Zelensky announced special "invincibility centres" would be set up around Ukraine to provide electricity, heat, water, internet, mobile phone connections and a pharmacy, free of charge and around the clock.

In addition, Europe's biggest cities will donate power generators and transformers to help Ukrainians get through the harsh winter ahead, as part of a drive launched today.

The attacks on Ukrainian energy facilities follow a series of Russian battlefield setbacks, culminating this month in a retreat from the southern city of Kherson to the east bank of the Dnipro River that bisects the country.

People waiting for humanitarian aid in Antonivka, Ukraine

A week after Kherson was retaken by Ukrainian forces, residents were tearing down Russian propaganda billboards and replacing them with pro-Ukrainian signs.

"The moment our soldiers entered, these posters were printed and handed over to us. We found workers to install the posters, and we clean off the advertisement as quickly as possible," said Antonina Dobrozhenska who works in the government's communications department.

Russia has been battering Ukraine with expensive long-range cruise missiles and cheap Iranian-made drones.

Britain's Defence Ministry said today there had been no public reports of Russia using Iranian one-way attack drones since around 17 November - a sign, it said, that Moscow might be running out of them, and would try to obtain more.

Battles raged in the east, where Russia is pressing an offensive along a stretch of front line west of the city of Donetsk, which has been held by its proxies since 2014. The Donetsk region was the scene of fierce attacks and constant shelling over the past 24 hours, President Zelensky said.

European officials were debating the details of a global price cap on Russian oil, a US-backed proposal taken up by theG7 group of big economies and set to come into effect on 5 December with the intent of limiting Moscow's ability to fund the war.

While Western sanctions mean Russian seaborne crude is now mostly sold in Asia, the trade still involves European shippers and insurers, who would be barred from transporting cargoes above the capped price.

Ambassadors from the 27 EU countries were discussing the G7 proposal with the aim of reaching a common position by the end of the day.

An evacuation of civilians from Donbas

A European diplomat said the price cap being discussed would be in the $65-70 per barrel range. Russia's Urals crude <URL-E>blend already trades at around $70 a barrel, a steep discount to other benchmarks, as a result of sanctions.

Moscow says it is carrying out a "special military operation" to protect Russian speakers in what President Vladimir Putin calls an artificial state carved from Russia. Ukraine and the West call the invasion an unprovoked land grab.

Western responses have included financial and military aid for Kyiv - it received €2.5 billion from the EU yesterday and is expecting $4.5bn in US aid in the coming weeks - and waves of punitive sanctions on Russia.

The BBC reported Britain is sending three helicopters to Ukraine, the first piloted aircraft it has sent since the war began. Ukraine will deploy them with Ukrainian crews trained in Britain, it said.