Dead rats, rodent paw marks, gnaw marks on coffee bean bags and maggots in fish were among the reasons the Food Safety Authority of Ireland issued 17 enforcement orders on food businesses in October.

FSAI CEO Dr Pamela Byrne said 17 orders was the highest number served in a month to date this year, and the figure included 14 closure orders.

The FSAI said some of the reasons for the enforcement orders included finding two dead rats in a dry goods storeroom, the presence of rodent paw marks on dusty shelves and gnaw marks on coffee bean bags.

The authority also found rust and dirt inside a meat mincing machine in one premises and an absence of staff food hygiene training records for all food handlers in another.

In one premises management were unable to provide answers in relation to two complaints received regarding maggots in fish.

The authority also said management could not provide any information in relation to traceability of the fish or where the rest of it had been disposed.

Dr Byrne reiterated the need for food businesses to have adequate pest control systems in place and added businesses must operate strict food safety procedures at all times.

She said: "As in recent months, a high number of the Enforcement Orders were associated with issues related to pests and failures in basic staff training.

"These issues are all preventable and food businesses must ensure that they always adhere to a high standard of food safety and hygiene."

The premises closed were:

NKD Pizza (Take Away), 9 Orwell Road, Rathgar, Dublin 6

The Whole Hoggs (Small Meat Manufacturing Plant), Rathmaiden, Slane, Meath

Euro Corner (Retailer), 13 Broad Street, Waterford City, Waterford, most areas of the business were closed except the grocery in the front of the ground floor, for sales of pre-packed ambient foods only.

Instanbel Buffet House, 90-91 Marlborough Street, Dublin 1

Glyde Fries Takeaway, Main Street, Tallanstown, Louth

Wisla (Retailer), Unit 2, Park Road Business Park, Park Road, Waterford

Celtic Pure (Packaged Water), Corcreagh, Shercock PO, Monaghan

Cloncat Service Station (Retailer), Fordstown, Navan, Meath, for using water sourced from the private well supplying the business for drinking, making hot/cold drinks or ice, food preparation and as an ingredient in any food prepared on premises.

Hot & Tasty Foodstall (Take Away), Main Road, Ballyforan, Roscommon

Indian Moon (Take Away), 3A West Douglas, Douglas, Cork

C&E (Retailer), 19 Catherine Street, Limerick, for the sale and supply of fresh fish and crustaceans

U Pick Store (Retailer) Unit 6, Westside Business Centre, Seamus Quirke Road, Galway

Gabriela's Tea Room (Restaurant), Cavan Street, Oldcastle, Meath, for the manufacture of cakes and confectionery on the premises

Camden Rotisserie (under appeal) (Restaurant  Café), 37 Lower Camden Street, Dublin 2

An Improvement Order was served on Glyde Fries Takeaway (Take Away), Main Street, Tallanstown, Louth

Two Prohibition Orders were served on Celtic Pure Unlimited (Packaged Water), Corcreagh, Shercock PO, Monaghan, Neree Mbala (Retailer),10a Base Enterprise Centre, Damastown Road, Mulhuddart, Dublin 15