The White House has said it will lift Covid-19 travel restrictions for fully vaccinated foreign nationals from 8 November, ending historic restrictions that barred much of the world from the United States.

Announcing the starting date for the new rules on travel into and out of the country, White House spokesman Kevin Munoz posted on Twitter that the policy "is guided by public health, stringent, and consistent".

Restrictions on non-US citizens were first imposed on air travellers from China in January 2020 by then-president Donald Trump and extended to dozens of other countries, without any clear metrics for how and when to lift them.

Curbs on non-essential travellers at land borders with Mexico and Canada have been in place since March 2020 to address the pandemic.

The restrictions have barred travellers from most of the world, including tens of thousands of foreign nationals with relatives or business links in the US.

The White House on Tuesday announced it would lift restrictions at its land borders and ferry crossings with Canada and Mexico for fully vaccinated foreign nationals in early November.

They are similar but not identical to requirements announced last month for international air travellers.

Unvaccinated visitors will still be barred from entering the US from Canada or Mexico at land borders.

Canada on 9 August began allowing fully vaccinated US visitors for non-essential travel.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) said last week the US will accept the use by international visitors of Covid-19 vaccines authorised by US regulators or the World Health Organization.

The White House still faces some remaining questions, including how and what exemptions the Biden administration will grant to the vaccine requirements.

Children under 18, for example, are largely expected to be exempt from the requirements, an official said.

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The White House announced on 20 September that the United States would lift restrictions on air travellers from 33 countries in early November. It did not specify the date at the time.

From 8 November, the US will admit fully vaccinated foreign air travellers from the 26 so-called Schengen countries in Europe, as well as Ireland, the UK, China, India, South Africa, Iran and Brazil.

The unprecedented restrictions have barred non-US citizens who were in those countries within the past 14 days.

The US has allowed foreign air travellers from more than 150 countries throughout the pandemic, a policy that critics said made little sense because some countries with high Covid-19 rates were not on the restricted list, while some on the list had the pandemic more under control.

The White House said last month it would apply vaccine requirements to foreign nationals travelling from all other countries.

Non-US air travellers will need to show proof of vaccination before boarding a flight, and will need to show proof of a recent negative Covid-19 test.

Foreign visitors crossing a land border will not need to show proof of a recent negative test.

The new rules do not require foreign visitors or Americans entering the country to go into quarantine.

Americans travelling overseas must still show proof of a recent negative Covid-19 test, and unvaccinated Americans will face stricter testing requirements.

They will also be subject to restrictions in the countries they plan to visit, which may include quarantines.

The CDC plans to soon issue new rules on contact tracing for international air travellers.