2001: 9/11 and 'War on Terror'
President George W. Bush launches his "war on terror" in response to the September 11 attacks that killed around 3,000 people, with air strikes on Afghanistan on 7 October 2001.
The Taliban government had sheltered Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaeda movement, which masterminded 9/11.
In power since 1996, the Taliban are soon defeated and flee the Afghan capital Kabul on 6 December.
Hamid Karzai is appointed to lead an interim government and NATO begins to deploy its International Security Assistance Force.
2004: First presidential election
Afghanistan's first election under a new system is held on 9 October 2004 with an enthusiastic turnout of 70%. Karzai wins 55% of the vote.
The Taliban regroup in the south and east, as well as across the border in Pakistan, and launch an insurgency.
2008-2011: US reinforcements
As attacks multiply, the US command in 2008 asks for more troops and the first reinforcements are sent.
Karzai is re-elected on 20 August 2009 in elections that are marred by massive fraud, low turnout and Taliban attacks.
In 2009, President Barack Obama, who had campaigned on a pledge to end the Afghanistan war, doubles the number of US troops to 68,000. In 2010, it reaches around 100,000.
Osama bin Laden is killed on 2 May 2011 in a US special forces operation in Pakistan.
On 22 June, Obama announces the beginning of a troop withdrawal, with the departure by mid-2012 of 33,000 soldiers.
2014: NATO exit
In June 2014, Ashraf Ghani is elected president but voting is marred by violence and a bitter dispute over claims of fraud.
In December, NATO ends its 13-year combat mission but a number of troops remain to train the Afghan military.
The following year, the Taliban make their greatest military advances since being ousted.
The Islamic State jihadist group also becomes active in the region. Bloody attacks multiply, notably in Kabul.
2020: US-Taliban deal, disputed election
Ghani is declared victorious for a second term on 18 February 2020, an announcement rejected by his rival and former minister Abdullah Abdullah, who vows to form his own parallel government.
On 29 February, the United States and the Taliban sign a historic deal in Doha under which all foreign forces would leave Afghanistan by May 2021, provided the insurgents start talks with Kabul and adhere to other security guarantees.
A power-sharing deal ends the bitter Ghani-Abdullah feud in May. Abdullah takes the role of leading the peace negotiations.
Talks begin in September but violence surges and the Taliban are blamed for a wave of targeted killings.
May 2021: Foreign troops withdrawal
On 1 May 2021, the United States and NATO start withdrawing their 9,500 soldiers, of which 2,500 are American.
In May, the Americans withdraw from the Kandahar air base.
On 2 July, Bagram air base - Afghanistan's biggest, and the nerve centre of the US-led coalition's operations - is handed over to Afghan forces.
President Joe Biden says that the US troop withdrawal will be completed by 31 August, before the 20th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks.
May-August 2021: Taliban blitz
The insurgents launch lightning attacks across Afghanistan, capturing vast stretches of the hinterland as the final foreign troops begin their withdrawal.
The Taliban capture their first provincial capital, Zaranj in the southwest, on 6 August.
Other major cities fall within days, including Kandahar and Herat - Afghanistan's second-and third-biggest cities respectively.
Most of the north, west and south is under Taliban control by 13 August.
The Pentagon says Kabul does not appear to face an "imminent threat".
August 2021: Fall of Kabul
The insurgents fully encircle the capital on 15 August with the capture of Jalalabad in the east.
It leaves Kabul as the only city under government control.
Diplomatic missions scramble to evacuate officials and local staff who fear reprisals from the Taliban.
Ghani flees the country, reportedly to Tajikistan, and the Taliban enter Kabul, eventually taking position in the presidential palace.
In a statement, Ghani admits the insurgents have "won".
August 2012: Chaos at the airport
People besiege the airport, the only exit route from the country, and chaos breaks out on the tarmac.
Chaos ensues as people try to board the few flights available.
US troops open fire, killing two armed men, the Pentagon says. All military and civilian flights are halted at Kabul airport.
Britain's Prime Minister Boris Johnson calls for G7 leaders to hold a virtual meeting to discuss Afghanistan "in the coming days". Defence Minister Ben Wallace says the Taliban takeover is a "failure of the international community".
The withdrawal of Western troops from Afghanistan is the "biggest debacle" that NATO has suffered since its founding, head of German Chancellor Angela Merkel's party Armin Laschet says.
China becomes the first country to say it is ready to deepen "friendly and cooperative" relations with Afghanistan, while the Russian foreign ministry says the situation in Kabul "is stabilising" and that the Taliban have started to "restore public order".
The United Nations Security Council says the international community must ensure Afghanistan does not become a breeding ground for terrorism under the Taliban, following an emergency meeting in New York.
French President Emmanuel Macron adds Afghanistan should not become again the "sanctuary of terrorism".