French President Emmanuel Macron has sought to showcase European military cooperation in France's annual Bastille Day parade at a time of growing tensions between Europe and the United States.
Key EU leaders, including German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Dutch Prime Minister Mark Rutte, joined Mr Macron in Paris to watch the parade down the Champs-Elysees that commemorates the 14 July 1789, storming of the Bastille fortress in Paris during the French Revolution.
Some 4,300 members of the armed forces, including regiments from other European armies, marched down the avenue's famed cobblestones in a tradition that dates back to the aftermath of World War I.
Army dogs festooned with medals, members of France's celebrated Foreign Legion and mounted cavalry in glittering uniforms brandishing ceremonial sabres all paraded in front of the high-ranking guests.
Meanwhile, French inventor and entrepreneur Franky Zapata showed off his futuristic flyboard, soaring above the Champs Elysees and the assembled leaders.
"The army is transforming: it is modernising for our soldiers, our sovereignty and our independence," Mr Macron told France 2 television in brief remarks.
Standing in an open-top command car alongside France's chief of staff General Francois Lecointre, Mr Macron was met with some jeers and whistles from supporters of the "yellow vest" movement who have staged weekly protests against the government since last fall.
Two prominent members of the movement, Jerome Rodrigues and Maxime Nicolle, were both detained by the police, sources told AFP.
Closer European defence cooperation has been one of Mr Macron's key foreign policy aims and the president shows no sign of wavering despite growing political turbulence in Germany and Britain's looming exit from the European Union.
At the 2017 parade, Mr Macron's guest of honour was the newly inaugurated President Donald Trump as the young French leader sought to take the initiative in forming a bond with his US counterpart.
But since then ties between Mr Trump and Mr Macron have soured over the US pullout from the Paris climate accord and the Iran nuclear deal, as well as France's new law for a tax on digital giants, mostly US companies.
"President Trump has been an excellent ambassador for a Europe of defence," Armed Forces Minister Florence Parly told the Parisien newspaper Sunday, pointing to "questions, even thinly veiled threats he made towards Europe or on the durability of American commitment".
Mr Macron, who pushed the idea of the European Intervention Initiative (EI2) to undertake missions outside of existing structures like NATO, insisted on the importance of European defence cooperation.
"Never, since the end of World War II has Europe been so important," said Mr Macron, who after coming to power in 2017 controversially dispensed with the president's traditional July 14 television interview, said in a written statement.
Ms Merkel told reporters after the event that the parade was a "great gesture for a European defence policy" and Germany was "honoured" to have taken part.
Forces from all nine countries taking part alongside France in the initiative - including Britain and Germany - were represented at the parade.
In a sign of France's ambition to be a leading modern military power under Mr Macron, the president yesterday announced the creation of a national space force command that will eventually be part of the air force.
Ms Merkel, who is battling to keep her grand coalition together at home, was again under close scrutiny after she suffered three episodes of shaking at official events in recent weeks.
But she appeared to suffer no problems and also stepped off the tribune with Mr Macron to greet wounded veterans.