US President Donald Trump has congratulated Egyptian president Abdel Fattah al-Sisi on securing another four years as president.

The White House said Mr Trump and the former general spoke by phone after Mr Sisi won 97% of the vote against a man who was, until recently, his campaign manager.

Mr Sisi’s serious rivals had either withdrawn from the race or been detained.

The White House said: "The two leaders affirmed the strategic partnership between the United States and Egypt, and noted that they look forward to advancing this partnership and addressing common challenges."

Mr Trump has repeatedly bucked Washington norms since coming to office, congratulating foreign leaders on elections that his own officials say were dubious, unfair or rigged.

The US State Department had earlier noted "reports of constraints on freedoms of expression and association in the run-up to the election".

The US and Egypt have long-standing security ties, but those ties have been tested in recent years as Mr Sisi has moved to shut down political debate.

In 2014, as army chief, Mr Sisi ousted Egypt's first freely elected president Mohammed Mursi after mass street protests.

He won his first term in office with 96.9% of valid votes.