Hungary's nationalist Jobbik party has called for Prime Minister Viktor Orban to resign because a referendum on rejecting European Union migrant quotas was rendered invalid by its low turnout.

Jobbik Chairman Gabor Vona told the premier in parliament that he had weakened Hungary's positions in Europe with a referendum that failed when less than half of Hungarian voters cast a valid vote.

"You need to resign, like David Cameron did, as is the norm in European politics," Mr Vona said.

"I know you will not resign, but the least you could offer is an apology."  

Mr Orban's right-wing government led an expensive media offensive urging voters to spurn the EU's quota plan, which aims to share migrants around the 28 member states without the consent of national parliaments.