Home advantage has grown stronger rather than weakened in the Premier League following the move to playing behind closed doors, a new study shows.

Research by the CIES Football Observatory looked at 63 leagues across the world before and after the coronavirus outbreak forced matches to be played in empty stadiums.

It found that on average, the home win percentage in matches played between 1 January, 2015 and 31 March, 2020 was 44.3%. Between 1 April and 24 August this year, that had dropped to 42.2%.

However, in the English top flight the home win percentage for matches behind closed doors was 46.7%, up from 45.9% pre-Covid.

It was a different story in the Championship, where the percentage of home wins dropped by 5.2% when matches were played behind closed doors.

The biggest change, the survey showed, was in the Greek Super League, where the home win percentage dropped from 47.9% to 32.8%.

The Bundesliga, the first of Europe's 'Big Five' leagues to restart after the suspension of competition, was second behind Greece with a drop of 15%.

At the other extreme was the Swiss Super League, where the home win percentage increased by 8.5% from 42.3% to 50.8%.