Three-time major champion Padraig Harrington failed to hit full stride in the first round of the £5.7m Turkish Airlines Open on Thursday, sitting eight shots off the lead following an opening one-over-par 72.

The tournament has been hit by a spate of withdrawals, including Rory McIlroy, due to safety fears, with Harrington critical of those who chose not to travel to Regnum Carya Golf and Spa Resort.

The Dubliner ended an eight-year wait for success on the European Tour with a one-shot victory in the Portugal Masters last week, but he has work to do here if he's to haul himself into the mix over the weekend.

Birdies on the fifth and eight were undermined by a disastrous triple-bogey on the par-three sixth. He did scramble to sit level par heading for his final hole of the day, but a bogey left a sour taste as he walked to the clubhouse.

Masters champion Danny Willett believes he is close to rediscovering his best form after an encouraging first round.

Willett, who needs to finish outright fifth or better in Antalya to regain top spot in the Race to Dubai, carded a two-under-par 69 to end the day five shots behind South Africa's George Coetzee.

The 29-year-old had led the money list since claiming his first major title at Augusta in April, but suffered what he described as the worst week of his career last week to be overtaken by Open champion Henrik Stenson.

Stenson was joint-second in the WGC-HSBC Champions in Shanghai as Willett finished 14 over par and 75th in the 78-man field, turning the Swede's deficit of more than 400,000 points into a lead of 261,387.

Both men will play in next week's Nedbank Golf Challenge in Sun City and the season finale in Dubai, by which time the absent McIlroy could be ruled out of contention for a third straight Race to Dubai title.

"I hit some great iron shots but am still struggling for consistency with the ball flight off the tee that cost me a few silly shots," said Willett, who carded six birdies but double-bogeyed the 10th after finding water off the tee.

"It's a lot better than it has been and it's a lot more positive. To be honest after the last few weeks anything would have been good, but things are going in the right direction and my best is not far off.

"Last week I could have quite happily not played the last three rounds after the start we had. I could not see things going correctly.

George Coetzee leads the way in Turkey

"But we're working hard, doing everything right and that's all you can do in this game. We have three weeks to try and do something special and I need to make some headway this week.

"It would nice to make it almost a match-play scenario in Dubai which might make it a bit easier, especially if you are playing together."

Coetzee, who was among those to gain a place in the field following a spate of withdrawals over security concerns - including world number two Rory McIlroy - made the most of his chance with eight birdies and a solitary bogey in an opening 64.

That gave the world number 160 a one-shot lead over Denmark's Thorbjorn Olesen, with Spain's Jorge Campillo aided by a hole-in-one on the 14th as he carded a 66 to share third place with Li Haotong, Bernd Wiesberger and Matteo Manassero.

Lee Westwood had threatened to post something similar when he raced to the turn in 30, but the 43-year-old came home in 40 to finish one under.

"It wasn't a tale of two halves, it was a tale of hitting it awful on the range and awful for all 18 holes," Westwood said. "It was an absolute embarrassment from tee to green."

On the greens, Westwood has been working with former snooker professional turned sports psychologist Chris Henry since the Ryder Cup, where he missed a number of crucial putts and lost all three matches in Europe's 17-11 defeat.

"I'm working on my routine and the mental side and on focusing better," Westwood added. "I'm also trying to take between six to eight seconds on putts, which is way better than 15, 16 seconds stood over it."