An independent review has recommended that Cricket Scotland is placed in special measures by sportscotland, their national agency for sport, after 448 examples of institutional racism were revealed.

Cricket Scotland failed in 29 out of 31 indicators of institutional racism following an investigation by consultancy firm Plan4Sport. The governing body only partially passed the other two tests.

The findings of the Changing the Boundaries report have been described as a "wake-up call for Scottish sport."

The review was prompted by allegations from former Scotland players Majid Haq and Qasim Sheikh in November and staff spoke to hundreds of people.

From those conversations, 68 individual concerns have been referred for further investigation, including 31 allegations of racism against 15 people, two clubs and one regional association.

The allegations include racial abuse, use of inappropriate language, favouritism towards white children from public schools and a lack of a transparent selection process.

An interim report in April revealed that some incidents had been referred to police and it has now emerged that one individual has appeared in court as a result.

Most (62%) of the respondents to a survey had experienced, seen or received reports of racism or other forms of discrimination.

The review also found a lack of any diversity or anti-racist training; no consistent process for handling racist incidents, with people who did raise issues "sidelined or ignored," a lack of diversity from board level to the coaching workforce and within the talent pathway, and a lack of transparency in the selection process.

The report authors made three key recommendations including that Cricket Scotland, whose entire board stepped down on Sunday, is taken under special measures by the national agency for sport until at least October 2023.

An immediate recruitment of board members should ensure there is no more than a 60-40 gender ratio either way and a minimum of 25% of members should come from black, south-east Asian, or other mixed or multiple ethnic groups.

Another key recommendation is that one of Scotland's five regional associations, the Western District Cricket Union, is placed in special measures by Cricket Scotland and is immediately suspended from managing all disciplinary measures relating to its competitions. An urgent review should be held into its governance.

Cricket Scotland has also been encouraged to address the backlog in referrals with any resulting investigations to be undertaken by a third party with suitable expertise.

Cricket Scotland interim chief executive Gordon Arthur, who started in his role earlier this month, issued a "heartfelt apology" to the victims of racism and other discrimination.

"We hope the report provides them with some reassurance that their voices have been heard, and we are sorry this did not happen sooner.

"This report is a watershed moment for cricket in Scotland and taking its recommendations forward is the top priority. It's clear that significant cultural change must happen and it must happen quickly.

"The immediate priority must be to get the independent referral process agreed and implemented so the investigations into the referrals can start.

"We are resolute on building and fostering a culture of inclusivity within the sport of cricket where racism and discrimination of any kind is not tolerated, where everyone is welcome and has access to equal opportunities.

"We must address the past, repair the sport and ensure history does not repeat itself and we will need everyone's commitment to make this change happen."