Sport Ireland chief executive John Treacy has criticised the Court of Arbitration for Sport after what he labelled "watered down" sanctions were imposed on Russia on Thursday

The ruling by CAS reduced Russia's four-year ban to two.

The country will not be officially represented at the next summer and winter Olympic Games or the 2022 football World Cup after a panel of three judges at CAS unanimously found the Russian anti-doping agency RUSADA non-compliant with the global anti-doping code over its failure to provide authentic drug test data upon request by the World Anti-Doping Agency.

The Russian name, flag and anthem will now be barred from the Tokyo and Beijing Games, as well as the football finals in Qatar, should Russia qualify, CAS said in a statement.

However, Russian athletes will be able to compete so long as they are not subject to a suspension themselves, that their uniform does not contain the Russian flag and does contain the words 'neutral athlete'.

In response the decision, Treacy said: "2020 has been a very difficult year for sport and has been further compounded by the news that CAS has completely watered down the already weak sanctions imposed on Russia by WADA.

"After this entire saga that has dragged on for years, what are we left with? A ban on a national anthem and a reduced sentence for bad behaviour, including the wholescale manipulation of data after repeated attempts to stall the progress of WADA's investigations.

"This is the sanction for the greatest scandal to have hit international sport. Russian athletes will still be allowed to compete; they will compete in Russian colours; they will compete with Russia across their uniforms.

"In 2016, over 280 Russian athletes took part in the Rio Olympic Games – we will potentially see a situation where nearly 300 athletes from countries that play by the rules being denied a spot in Tokyo Olympics next year, with many more potentially competing in the Paralympic Games."

Treacy is far from alone in his unhappiness at the verdict. Travis Tygart, the chief executive of the USA Anti-Doping Agency, also described it as a "weak, watered down outcome... a catastrophic blow to clean athletes, the integrity of sport, and the rule of law".