The level of non-permanent employment has risen to 10% of all jobs during the downturn, according to a study by the Economic and Social Research Institute which found the gig economy was prevalent during the recession.

However, that level of temporary employment had dropped to 8 or 9% by 2016.

The report says temporary work accounts for 80% of all non-permanent work in Ireland and freelance work makes up the balance.

While freelance employment has increased marginally over time, it accounts for only one in 50 jobs, according to the ESRI.

When compared with other EU countries, temporary employment in Ireland is not concentrated among low-skilled occupations.

The ESRI says this is reflected in the pay differential between permanent and temporary employment - also known as the pay penalty.

This means how much less pay temporary staff receive than their permanent counterparts.

This pay penalty was 21% in Ireland in 2014, which compares with the EU average of 29%.