Qatar has still not fulfilled promises to improve and protect the rights of migrant workers, a new report by Amnesty International has claimed.
The Gulf state has seen a dramatic increase in population since winning the right to stage the 2022 World Cup in a controversial vote by football's governing body FIFA during December 2010.
Having delivered a successful bid for the showpiece tournament as well as the 2019 IAAF World Athletics Championships - which start in Doha on 27 September - there has been increased scrutiny over Qatar's labour laws governing the estimated two million migrant workers who are helping to build the infrastructure.
The Qatari government has made a series of promises over the last decade to improve matters within the small, but oil-and-gas-rich, country.
However, Amnesty International has produced a 52-page report, titled 'All Work, No Pay: The Struggle of Qatar's Migrant Workers For Justice', which claims the pledges have "not yet been matched by reality".
In a statement, the human rights' organisation's deputy director of global issues Stephen Cockburn said: "Despite the significant promises of reform which Qatar has made ahead of the 2022 World Cup, it remains a playground for unscrupulous employers.
"Migrant workers often go to Qatar in the hope of giving their families a better life - instead many people return home penniless after spending months chasing their wages, with too little help from the systems that are supposed to protect them.
"Migrant workers in Qatar too often face an impossible choice between long and often fruitless efforts to seek justice, or returning to their families without the money needed to support them."
Cockburn added: "We are urging the Qatari authorities to fully deliver what has been promised and end the shameful reality of labour exploitation.
"If Qatar is serious about meeting its promises to improve workers' rights, it must provide more judges to ensure cases are heard rapidly, fully finance the compensation fund, and ensure companies that break the rules face justice."
Seven new stadiums are being built and one renovated for Qatar to stage the 2022 World Cup, which was moved to the winter because of concerns about the Gulf peninsula's extreme heat during the tournament's traditional summer slot.
Qatar's climate has also been partly blamed by experts for high mortality rates among migrant construction workers.
After signing an agreement with the United Nations' International Labour Organisation during November 2017, the Qatari authorities passed new laws to improve workers' rights.
Those changes including the scrapping of the most notorious element of the 'kafala' sponsorship system - which meant any migrant worker who wished to go home would need their employer to consent to an 'exit permit'.
New legislation has also introduced a temporary minimum wage, created a workers' insurance fund and set up committees to address disputes.
However, Amnesty's latest report shows how several hundred migrant workers employed by three construction and cleaning companies were forced to return home without being paid.
One testimony from a Kenyan migrant worker said they "had to live with very little food and no salary" and would "go to find food in the bins".
According to Amnesty, the United States State Department estimates that more than 6,000 workers submitted complaints to Qatar's new 'Committees for the Settlement of Labour Disputes' during the last year.
After being contacted by the human rights organisation over the latest findings, the Qatari Ministry of Administrative Development, Labour and Social Affairs did not respond to questions about the workings of the committees, but said it had helped to negotiate many of the settlements and provided food and generators at workers' camps.
Qatar had announced it would introduce a 'Workers' Support and Insurance Fund' to provide compensation. Amnesty said almost a year later it "remains unfunded and unused, despite the urgent need".
Following a previous report by Amnesty published during February 2019, world governing body FIFA said Qatar must make "additional progress" on improving conditions for the millions of migrant workers.