The sports of skateboarding, sports climbing and surfing that first featured at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics have been included in the initial sports programme for the 2028 Games in Los Angeles, but boxing, weightlifting and modern pentathlon are all conspicuous by their absence.

Those three sports did not make the cut of the initial 28 sports and must meet certain criteria in 2023 to be included, IOC President Thomas Bach told an online news conference at the end of an executive board meeting.

An IOC session in February will approve the initial programme. The three sports that are left out will be up for re-inclusion at the IOC session in 2023.

Skateboarding, sports climbing and surfing made their Olympic debuts in Tokyo this year, with the Games delayed by a year due to Covid-19, and proved very popular with young viewers.

They are already a part of the programme for the 2024 Paris Olympics.

The exclusion of weightlifting and boxing is a major blow as their international federations struggle with governance, finance and corruption issues and have been repeatedly warned by the IOC to reform or risk their Olympic spots.

Both will need to show improvement in terms of financial transparency and governance to get back into the Olympics.

Modern pentathlon, part of the Games for more than a century, must provide plans for the replacement of horses in the competition following a scandal during the Tokyo Games where a horse was hit by a trainer.

Ireland's Natalya Coyle also saw her medal chances disappear in Tokyo after her horse refused to jump.

"The UIPM (modern pentathlon federation) must finalise its proposal for a replacement of horse riding and overall competition format... they must demonstrate significant reduction in cost... and appeal to youth and the general public," Bach said.

The UIPM responded with a statement saying that it "gratefully accepts the clear communication from the IOC Executive Board" and said a working group on the issue would report its findings by August this year, for presentation to UIPM Congress in November.