The International Paralympic Committee has banned Russia from next month's Rio Paralympics.
The decision was announced by IPC president Sir Philip Craven at a press conference in Rio and follows three weeks of intense speculation about Russia's right to compete on the world stage following a damning report into its state-run doping programme.
Russia immediately announced it would be appealing against the ban to the Court of Arbitration for Sport.
Craven said: "The IPC governing board has suspended the Russian Paralympic Committee with immediate effect.
"The anti-doping system in Russia broken, corrupted and completely compromised."
Although expected, given the noises coming from the IPC, the decision will still cause the International Olympic Committee huge embarrassment as it decided not to issue a blanket ban.
That decision has been widely criticised, with the fall-out still causing confusion in Rio, although Russia's Olympic team was finally confirmed at 278 athletes at the IOC's press briefing on Sunday morning.
The IPC's decision to suspend the Russian Paralympic Committee will please the many anti-doping experts and athletes' groups that wanted sport to send a much clearer message to Russia, and other rogue states, on the importance of clean sport.
Craven added: "The doping culture in Russian sport comes from the Russian government.
"Russia has top quality athletes across all sports and we look forward to the day when we can invite the Russian Paralympic Committee back."
The 2016 Paralympics are due to get under way in Rio in exactly one month and the Russians have been given three weeks to appeal the IPC's decision.
Craven said: "The Russian Paralympic Committee have 21 days to lodge or have an appeal heard on their behalf."