Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi's ruling alliance is likely to win a big majority in parliament after a mammoth general election that ended today, most exit polls showed, a far better showing than expected in recent weeks.

Mr Modi faced criticism early on in the campaign for failing to create jobs and for weak farm prices, and analysts as well as politicians said the election race was tightening with the main opposition Congress party gaining ground.

However, he rallied his Hindu nationalist base and turned the campaign into a fight for national security after tensions rose with Pakistan and attacked his main rival for being soft on the country's arch foe.

Modi's National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is projected to win anything between 339-365 seats in the 545-member lower house of parliament followed by 77 to 108 for the Congress party-led opposition alliance, India Today Axis exit poll showed.

To rule, a party needs to win 272 seats.

Counting of votes recorded in hundreds of thousands of computerised machines will begin early on Thursday and results are expected by noon.

According to another poll released by Times Now television, Narendra Modi's alliance is likely to get 306 seats. A poll by Neta-Newsx, though, forecast Mr Modi's group falling 30 seats short.

The opposition Congress party leader Rahul Gandhi

Exit polls, though, have a mixed record in a country with an electorate of 900 million people - around two-thirds of whom voted in the seven-phase election. They have often gotten the number of seats wrong, but the broad direction has generally been correct, analysts say.

With three out of four of the polls indicating a clear majority for Narendra Modi's alliance, Indian equity markets are expected to rally sharply tomorrow, while the Indian rupee is also likely to strengthen versus the US dollar, according to market participants.

A clear win would mean Mr Modi can carry out reforms investors expect to make India an easier place for doing business, they said.

"I expect a positive reaction from markets on both the rupee and equities," said Sajal Gupta, head of forex and rates at Indian brokerage firm Edelweiss Securities.

"Equity indices should  have a rally of maybe 250-300 points," said Mr Gupta, adding the Indian rupee may test the 69 level against the US dollar before retreating.

Critics say Prime Minister Modi sought to win votes by stoking fear among the Hindu majority of the potential dangers posed by the country's Muslims and Pakistan, and promoted a Hindu-first India.

Read more:
Marathon rather than sprint begins as Indians go to polls
India and Pakistan square up in serious military crisis
Pakistan's PM calls for talks with India after Kashmir clashes

However, his supporters say Mr Modi and his allies are simply restoring Hinduism to its rightful place at the core of Indian society. Muslims make up about 14% of India's 1.3 billion population.

"The massive crowds and response at every rally of Prime Minister Modi were a clear indicator of their approval for his leadership, the performance of the past five years and the vision for the future," Nalin Kohli, a spokesman of the ruling Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party said.

The Congress party led by Rahul Gandhi, the fourth generation scion of the Nehru-Gandhi dynasty that ruled India for decades following independence, focused on Modi's failure to deliver on the promises he made to transform the economy and turn India into a manufacturing hub.

Congress spokesman Sanjay Jha dismissed the poll projections, saying that an alliance led by his party would defeat the BJP when votes are counted on 23 May.

"Many of the pollsters, if not all of the pollsters, have got it wrong," he said, adding that a polarised atmosphere and fear had kept voters from telling pollsters about their actual allegiance.

Mamata Banerjee, the chief minister of West Bengal state and a bitter opponent of Narenda Modi, said the fight was not over.

Voting began on 11 April and ended today in the world's biggest democratic exercise.

Although Mr Modi's party is poised to lose seats in northern Uttar Pradesh, which elects the most lawmakers out of all Indian states, the party's return to power will be on the back of a strong showing in other northern heartland regions and two eastern provinces, CVoter's polling showed.