Some 448 hate crimes and hate-related incidents were recorded by gardaí last year.

The 2021 statistics, published by An Garda Siochána today, show there were 389 hate crimes and 59 non-crime hate-related incidents recorded.

Half of all hate-related incidents took place in the Dublin region.

Some of the hate crimes recorded in 2021 involved more than one "discriminatory motives".

This is recorded if a victim or any other person perceives that an incident was motivated by hostility or prejudice based on nine protected characteristics.

These characteristics are disability, race, colour, nationality, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation or gender.

In 2021, race accounted for almost half of all discriminatory motives involved in these hate crimes (44%).

Sexual orientation (15%) and nationality (14%) were the next most common motives.

Gardaí say that hate motives were evident in a range of crimes last year.

They recorded such motives in 35% of public order offences, 18% of minor assaults, and 11% of criminal damage cases.

Assistant Commissioner Paul Hilman said today's figures are the first published following the introduction of new definitions and recording practices in late 2020.