There were 700 racist incidents reported to the Irish Network Against Racism last year, up from 530 in 2019.

INAR, which has released its 2020 report, also recorded 159 criminal incidents, 51 racist assaults and 334 incidents of hate speech. 

Oein DeBhariduin, who is a member of the INAR board, said the Covid-19 pandemic and associated lockdowns did not result in a quieter time for minorities.

He said hate incidents worsened on the street and online. 

Report author and Research Lead at INAR, Dr Lucy Michael, described the response of institutions as disappointing.

While INAR has welcomed the promise of hate crime legislation, it says measures are also needed to tackle hate speech online.