Dublin is ranked the 39th most expensive city to live in for expatriate employees, the Mercer 2021 Cost of Living Survey shows.
It looks at 209 cities around the world, and is designed to help multinational companies and governments determine pay rates for their expatriate employees.
One of the factors influencing Dublin's ranking is the cost of rental accommodation, as Noel O'Connor, Senior Consultant at Mercer explained.
"High demand, coupled with supply constraints in the private rental market, mean some expatriates have difficulty finding appropriate rental accommodation, often the biggest cost for companies placing employees on assignment," he said.
The only European cities among the top ten list of most expensive cities are the Swiss cities of Zurich in 5th place, Geneva in 8th place and Bern in 10th place.
Dublin is up seven places from its position last year, behind Paris at 33rd most expensive and Milan at 36th.
Other higher ranking western European cities include London at 18th most expensive, Vienna at 37th, Amsterdam at 44th, Rome at 47th and Munich at 52th.
Ashgabat in Turkmenistan tops the list as most expensive city, bumping Hong Kong to second most expensive, while Beirut is up 42 places to third most expensive city due to the escalation of several crises - the country's largest financial crisis, Covid-19 and the Port of Beirut explosion in 2020.
Tokyo and Zurich each dropped one spot from third and fourth respectively to fourth and fifth positions, and Shanghai ranked sixth, up one place from last year.
Singapore moved from fifth place to seventh.
The survey shows that Western European cities have moved up the rankings this year due to strengthening of currencies against the US dollar.
"Dublin, which recorded deflation during the year, didn't climb as sharply as other Eurozone cities like Paris, Vienna, Amsterdam and Rome where official inflation caused faster price rises," said Mr O'Connor.
Cities in the US have dropped in this year's ranking mostly due to currency fluctuations between March 2020 and March 2021, despite the rising inflation of goods and services in the country.
New York ranked as most expensive city in the US, though it dropped eight places since last year to 14th most expensive overall.
That is followed by Los Angeles at 20th, San Francisco at 25th, Honolulu at 43rd and Chicago at 45th most expensive.
Winston Salem remains the least expensive US city surveyed for international employees.
The Canadian dollar has appreciated in value in relation to the USD, triggering jumps in this year’s ranking.
Vancouver in 93rd place, is the most expensive Canadian city in the ranking, followed by Toronto in 98th place.
Ottawa is the least expensive city in Canada.
In South America, Port of Spain in 91st place, ranked as the most expensive city, followed by Port-au-Prince in 92nd place.
Brasilia is the least expensive city in South America, according to the survey.
The survey shows that Australian cities have climbed in this year's ranking as the local currency significantly gained value against the USD.
Sydney in 31st place, is Australia’s most expensive ranked city for international employees, followed by Melbourne in 59th place.