New research suggests there are some persistent differences in the way Irish men and women view their economic circumstances.
The research from KBC Bank Ireland suggests that Irish men are generally more optimistic in their assessment of economic conditions and their personal finances than Irish women.
The bank also found that the range of sentiment readings varies more for men than for women, implying that men's views about the economy and their household finances have tended to undergo greater swings than those of women.
Consumer sentiment was higher for women than men only four times in 65 readings since 2003, the research shows.
It also revealed that the gender gap in sentiment tends to be greatest in times of strong economic conditions such as the peak years of Celtic tiger exuberance of 2004-2006 and the emerging recovery of 2014 to 2016.
Today's research also showed that consumer sentiment was consistently stronger among younger age groups than older age groups.
The 35-54 age group saw the weakest confidence readings during a crisis period, which KBC said may reflect the impact of austerity measures.
It also noted that older age groups are now more worried by Brexit, which could owe something to a greater awareness of historic difficulties as well as a potentially greater "scarring" effect on permanent income.
"It could also be the case that those in younger age groups have come to see such shocks as a feature rather than a bug of the economic system," KCB Bank said.