Italians are free to stroll and visit relatives for the first time in nine weeks as Europe's hardest-hit country eases back the world's longest nationwide coronavirus lockdown.

Four million people, an estimated 72% of them men, are returning to their construction sites and factories as the economically and emotionally shattered country tries to get back to work.

Restaurants that have managed to survive Italy's most disastrous crisis in generations are reopening for takeaway service.

But bars and even ice cream parlours remain closed.

The use of public transport is discouraged and everyone has to wear masks in indoor public spaces.

Wuhan, the Chinese city where the virus emerged in December, led the world with an unprecedented lockdown on 23 January that lasted 76 days.

Weeks later Italy followed suit, becoming the first Western democracy to shut down virtually everything in the face of an illness that has now officially killed 29,079 - the most in Europe - and some fear thousands more.

Red circles on the ground in the Milan metro indicate where to stand to maintain physical distance

The lives of Italians began closing in around them as it became increasingly apparent that the first wave of infections in provinces around Milan were spiralling out of control.

Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte began by putting a quarter of the population in the northern industrial heartland on lockdown on 8 March.

The sudden measure frightened many, fearful of being locked in together with the gathering threat, into fleeing to less affected regions further south.

The danger of the virus spreading with them and incapacitating the south's less developed healthcare system forced Mr Conte to announce a nationwide lockdown on 9 March.

"Today is our moment of responsibility," Mr Conte told the nation. "We cannot let our guard down."


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A worker wears a face mask in Milan

The official death toll was then 724. More waves of restrictions followed as hundreds began dying each day.

Almost everything except for pharmacies and grocery stores was shuttered across the Mediterranean country of 60 million on 12 March.

Mr Conte's final roll of the dice involved closing all non-essential factories on 22 March.

Italy's highest single toll - 969 - was reported five days later.

The economic toll of all those shutdowns has been historic.

Italy's economy, the eurozone's third-largest last year, is expected to shrink more than in any year since the global depression of the 1930s.

Half of the workforce is receiving state support and the same number told a top pollster that they were afraid of becoming unemployed.

A graffiti of a homeless man wearing a protective mask with his dog that reads '#Everything will be fine' in Livorno

Mr Conte's popularity has jumped along with that of most of other world leaders grappling with the pandemic thanks to a rally around the flag effect.

But a Demos poll conducted at the end of April found some of Mr Conte's lustre fading.

Confidence in his government has slipped by eight percentage points to a still-strong 63% since March.

Italy's staggered reopening is complicated by a highly decentralised system that allows the country's 20 regions to layer on their own rules.

Venice's Veneto and the southern Calabria regions have thus been serving food and drink at bars and restaurants with outdoor seating since last week.

The area around Genoa is thinking of allowing small groups of people to go sailing and reopening its beaches.

Neighbouring Emilia-Romagna is keeping them closed, even to those who live by the sea.

All this uncertainty appears to be weighing on the nation's psyche.

A poll by the Piepoli Institute showed 62% of Italians think they will need psychological support with coming to grips with the post-lockdown world.

"The night of the virus continues," sociologist Ilvo Diamanti wrote in La Repubblica daily.

"And you can hardly see the light on the horizon. If anything, we're getting used to moving in the dark."