As violence marks the anniversary of the 2011 uprising that toppled President Hosni Mubarak, RTÉ News looks back over three years of political turmoil and civil unrest in Egypt.


January 25: Massive protests erupt, after a revolt topples Tunisia's ruler. About 850 people die in unrest over 18 days.

February 11: Hosni Mubarak resigns after 30 years in power and hands power to the army, which suspends the constitution and dissolves parliament.

November 28: Egypt holds the first stage of its first post-revolt parliamentary election. Islamists win about two-thirds of the seats, half of which go to the Muslim Brotherhood.


June 30: Mohamed Morsi wins the presidential election with 51.7% of the vote, becoming Egypt's first civilian and Islamist ruler.

August 12: Morsi scraps a constitutional document which allowed the military legislative powers.

December 15 and 22: 64% of voters in a two-round referendum back the new constitution, but opposition groups claim the poll was tainted.


January 24: Violence erupts on the eve of the second anniversary of the 2011 uprising. At least 60 people die in a week.

July 3: The military ousts Morsi after massive protests against his one-year rule, and freeze the Islamist-drafted constitution. Morsi calls it a "coup".

August 14: Security forces move against pro-Morsi protest camps in Cairo, killing hundreds. A month-long state of emergency is declared.

August 22: Hosni Mubarak comes out of jail after 28 months in detention.

October 6: Nearly 60 people are killed when security forces crack down on Morsi supporters marching towards Cairo's Tahrir Square.

November 4: Morsi goes on trial for alleged involvement in the killings of opposition protesters.

December 24: A car bomb rips through a police building in Mansoura, north of Cairo, killing 15 people. An al-Qaeda-inspired group based in the Sinai, Ansar Beit Al-Maqdis, claims responsibility.

December 25: The government declares the Muslim Brotherhood a terrorist organisation.


January 14-15: Egyptian voters approve a new constitution by a vote of 98.1% with turnout reaching 38.6% of 53 million registered voters.

January 24: A massive suicide bomb hits the Cairo police headquarters, the first of three blasts in the Egyptian capital, kills four people and wounds more than 70. Hours later a police conscript dies when a makeshift bomb explodes near a police car. A third bombing outside a police station on the Giza pyramids road killed one person.