Chile declared a state of emergency after a late frost caused an estimated €1 billion worth of damage to fruit crops, potentially hitting wine production as well.
The affected central region is the main fruit and wine producing area in Chile and includes vineyards owned by prominent local wine label Concha yToro.
The industry is one of Chile's most important after copper, with fruit exports worth €3.1bn in 2012 and wine worth €1.3bn, according to government figures.
"These frosts are the worst that agriculture has faced in 84 years, impacting the area from Coquimbo to Bio Bio," the national agricultural society said.
Agriculture Minister Luis Mayol has pledged aid for affected farmers.
Fruit trade association Fedefruta has given an early estimate of up the of damage from the extensive cold snap late last month.
It estimates the frost damaged between 35% and 61% of stoned fruit crops, 57% of almonds, 48% of kiwi crops and 20% of table grapes.
Early wine grape varieties such as Chardonnay and Pinot Noir have also been hit.
Chile is best known for its Carmenere grape variety, as well as Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, and wine-making plays an important role in manufacturing.
However, Fedefruta said most crops had not yet reached full flower and was not yet possible to give an exact damage forecast.
"The good news is that there exists a strong commitment from the government authorities, the bank and the unions to help the affected producers," said Patricio Crespo, head of the national agriculture society, which held an emergency meeting with the government and creditors on Wednesday.